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What happens to the mrna molecule once the construction of the protein is complete

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What Happens to the mRNA Molecule Once the Construction of the Protein Is Complete?

In molecular biology, mRNA (messenger RNA) plays a crucial role in the process of protein synthesis. Understanding what happens to the mRNA molecule once the construction of the protein is complete is essential in comprehending gene expression and regulation. This article will explain the fate of mRNA after protein synthesis, outlining its significance and potential applications.

  1. Degradation of mRNA:
  • MRNA molecules have a limited lifespan after protein synthesis.
  • Various cellular mechanisms are responsible for the degradation of mRNA.
  • Degradation prevents the accumulation of unnecessary or defective mRNA.
  1. Regulation of Gene Expression:
  • MRNA degradation contributes to the control of gene expression.
  • By actively degrading certain mRNA molecules, cells can regulate protein production.
  • This regulation is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and responding to changing environmental conditions.
  1. Recycling of mRNA:
  • Not all mRNA molecules are immediately degraded after translation.
  • Some mRNA can be recycled to synthesize multiple rounds of proteins.
  • Recycling mRNA allows cells to optimize protein production and save energy.
  1. MRNA Surveillance:
  • Cells possess surveillance systems to ensure the quality of mRNA molecules.
  • Surveillance mechanisms detect and eliminate defective mRNA, preventing the synthesis of faulty

Messenger RNA is a type of RNA that is necessary for protein production. Once cells finish making a protein, they quickly break down the mRNA. mRNA from vaccines does not enter the nucleus and does not alter DNA.

What happens to the mRNA once it has been completed?

The life of an mRNA molecule begins with transcription and ultimately ends in degradation. In the course of its life, however, mRNA is examined, modified in various ways and transported before eventually being translated into proteins.

Where does mRNA go after transcription is completed?

Cytoplasm

DNA and Protein Synthesis

The process of making mRNA from DNA is called transcription, and it occurs in the nucleus. The mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins, which occurs in the cytoplasm. mRNA formed in the nucleus is transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm where it attaches to the ribosomes.

What happens to the protein after it is made and complete?

After being synthesized, the protein will be carried in a vesicle from the RER to the cis face of the Golgi (the side facing the inside of the cell). As the protein moves through the Golgi, it can be modified.

What happens after mRNA is assembled?

Once the initiation complex is formed on the mRNA, the large ribosomal subunit binds to this complex, which causes the release of IFs (initiation factors). The large subunit of the ribosome has three sites at which tRNA molecules can bind.

What do messenger and transfer RNA do during protein synthesis?

Messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules carry the coding sequences for protein synthesis and are called transcripts; ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules form the core of a cell's ribosomes (the structures in which protein synthesis takes place); and transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein

What converts messenger RNA into a protein?

Ribosomes convert mRNA into a protein. Ribosomes are small, membrane-less organelles that are significant sites of protein synthesis. mRNA (messenger RNA) holds a transcript or coding sequence for protein synthesis. The process in which ribosomes convert mRNA into a protein is known as translation.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the messenger RNA attached to?

The ribosomes

mRNA formed in the nucleus is transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm where it attaches to the ribosomes. Proteins are assembled on the ribosomes using the mRNA nucleotide sequence as a guide. Thus mRNA carries a “message” from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

How does the sequence of DNA bases affect the protein product?

The DNA sequence of a gene determine the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein. Thus any changes in DNA sequence can result in changes in protein function . This is called mutations. Mutations can be good,bad or neutral depending upon whether the effect of mutation is positive , negative or unnoticed.

Does the order of DNA bases matter for protein synthesis?

Answer and Explanation:

The correct statement should read: During protein synthesis, the sequence of bases in DNA (not RNA) controls the sequence of bases in RNA (not DNA), which in turn, controls the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.

What is the process of making a protein from mRNA?

During translation, ribosomal subunits assemble together like a sandwich on the strand of mRNA, where they proceed to attract tRNA molecules tethered to amino acids (circles). A long chain of amino acids emerges as the ribosome decodes the mRNA sequence into a polypeptide, or a new protein.

What is the process of mRNA processing?

In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo three main processing steps: Capping at the 5' end. Addition of a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. Splicing to remove introns.

What is the process of making proteins?

Protein synthesis is the process in which cells make proteins. It occurs in two stages: transcription and translation. Transcription is the transfer of genetic instructions in DNA to mRNA in the nucleus. It includes three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination.

What is mRNA processing?

In the nucleus, a pre-mRNA is produced through transcription of a region of DNA from a linear chromosome. This transcript must undergo processing (splicing and addition of 5' cap and poly-A tail) while it is still in the nucleus in order to become a mature mRNA.

What does the ordering of bases in a gene determine the order of?

The order of deoxyribonucleotide bases in a gene determines the amino acid sequence of a particular protein. Since certain amino acids can interact with other amino acids in the same protein, this primary structure ultimately determines the final shape and therefore the chemical and physical properties of the protein.

Which molecule is used as a template for the polypeptide sequence during translation?

During translation, each of the 20 amino acids must be aligned with their corresponding codons on the mRNA template. All cells contain a variety of tRNAs that serve as adaptors for this process. As might be expected, given their common function in protein synthesis, different tRNAs share similar overall structures.

What molecule is read to make a polypeptide?

MRNA

In an mRNA, the instructions for building a polypeptide are RNA nucleotides (As, Us, Cs, and Gs) read in groups of three. These groups of three are called codons. There are ‍ codons for amino acids, and each of them is "read" to specify a certain amino acid out of the ‍ commonly found in proteins.

FAQ

What is the template DNA to polypeptide?

During transcription, the enzyme RNA polymerase (green) uses DNA as a template to produce a pre-mRNA transcript (pink). The pre-mRNA is processed to form a mature mRNA molecule that can be translated to build the protein molecule (polypeptide) encoded by the original gene.

Which molecule acts as the template?

Answer and Explanation: The molecule that serves as the template during translation is mRNA (messenger RNA). During translation, mRNA from transcription is transported to the cytoplasm. Here, ribosomes attach to the mRNA and read it in groups of three nucleotides called codons.

How can a mRNA molecule be used as a template for a polypeptide?

Assemble a polypeptide chain. In translation, the cell uses an mRNA strand that it has just transcribed from its genetic code as a template to assemble proteins. The cell has just transcribed this mRNA strand from its DNA, and it now translates the mRNA's nucleotide sequence into a chain of amino acids.

Where does RNA attach during protein construction?

The ribosome

The RNA-binding sites in the ribosome. Each ribosome has three binding sites for tRNA: the A-, P-, and E-sites (short for aminoacyl-tRNA, peptidyl-tRNA, and exit, respectively) and one binding site for mRNA.

What does messenger RNA attach to during protein synthesis?

The mRNA carries the message from the DNA to the ribosomes. Ribosomes are organelles that read the mRNA and create the correct protein sequence. Ribosomes are located in the cytoplasm and thus do not have access to the DNA in the nucleus.

Which part of a cell creates proteins using messenger RNA?

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that carries the genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where it is used to make proteins.

Which organelle does messenger RNA attach to?

MRNA gets attached to ribosome for protein synthesis.

What is the site of protein formation?
A ribosome is an intercellular structure made of both RNA and protein, and it is the site of protein synthesis in the cell. The ribosome reads the messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence and translates that genetic code into a specified string of amino acids, which grow into long chains that fold to form proteins.

What is a protein site?
Any region of a protein's surface that can interact with another molecule through sets of noncovalent bonds is called a binding site. A protein can contain binding sites for a variety of molecules, both large and small.

What happens to the mrna molecule once the construction of the protein is complete

What is the site where protein are assembled called?

Proteins are assembled at organelles called ribosomes. When proteins are destined to be part of the cell membrane or exported from the cell, the ribosomes assembling them attach to the endoplasmic reticulum, giving it a rough appearance.

What is the manufacturing site of proteins? Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis, and they convert the coded information in messenger RNA (mRNA) into an actual protein molecule. The mRNA molecule carries the message contained in your DNA to the ribosome.

What is the site of protein folding?

Protein folding occurs in a cellular compartment called the endoplasmic reticulum. This is a vital cellular process because proteins must be correctly folded into specific, three-dimensional shapes in order to function correctly. Unfolded or misfolded proteins contribute to the pathology of many diseases.

Which codon starts all proteins?

AUG

The standard start codon for translation of a gene is “AUG,” which encodes the amino acid methionine (Met or M), and establishes the reading frame for the ribosome to follow, adding corresponding amino acids in a polypeptide chain.

What amino acid do all proteins begin with and why?

Protein synthesis is believed to be initiated with the amino acid methionine because the AUG translation initiation codon of mRNAs is recognized by the anticodon of initiator methionine transfer RNA.

What amino acid starts all genes?

Amino acid methionine

At the start of the initiation phase of translation, the ribosome attaches to the mRNA strand and finds the beginning of the genetic message, called the start codon (Figure 4). This codon is almost always AUG, which corresponds to the amino acid methionine.

Does methionine start all proteins?

Although methionine (Met) is the first amino acid incorporated into any new protein, it is not always the first amino acid in mature proteins—in many proteins, methionine is removed after translation.

How are proteins constructed from amino acids?

A protein molecule is made from a long chain of these amino acids, each linked to its neighbor through a covalent peptide bond (Figure 3-1). Proteins are therefore also known as polypeptides. Each type of protein has a unique sequence of amino acids, exactly the same from one molecule to the next.

What is the starting amino acid for proteins?

Methionine

Methionine is specified by the codon AUG, which is also known as the start codon. Consequently, methionine is the first amino acid to dock in the ribosome during the synthesis of proteins.

  • What amino acid starts all proteins?
    • Amino acid methionine

      Protein synthesis is initiated universally with the amino acid methionine. In Escherichia coli, studies with anticodon sequence mutants of the initiator methionine tRNA have shown that protein synthesis can be initiated with several other amino acids.

  • Which amino acids are involved in protein formation?
    • The 20 to 22 amino acids that comprise proteins include:
      • Alanine.
      • Arginine.
      • Asparagine.
      • Aspartic Acid.
      • Cysteine.
      • Glutamic acid.
      • Glutamine.
      • Glycine.
  • What is the process by which amino acids build proteins?
    • The process of joining together chains of amino acids into polypeptides or proteins is called translation. Translation is performed by a piece of machinery in the cell called the ribosome. The ribosome takes information from messenger RNA (mRNA) and uses it to insert the next amino acid into the protein.

  • What is the first amino acid in most protein?
    • Methionine

      Answer and Explanation: The first amino acid in most proteins is e. methionine. This is because the codon that starts protein synthesis (called the start codon) is AUG which codes for methionine.

  • Where does protein building take place?
    • Ribosomes

      Hear this out loudPauseRibosomes are the sites in a cell in which protein synthesis takes place.

  • What is the construction site of a protein?
    • Ribosomes

      Hear this out loudPauseThe construction site is either the cytoplasm in a prokaryote or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a eukaryote. The building materials are amino acids. The construction workers are ribosomes and transfer RNA molecules.

  • Where does protein building of translation take place?
    • Ribosome

      Hear this out loudPauseProteins Are Made on Polyribosomes

      As soon as the preceding ribosome has translated enough of the nucleotide sequence to move out of the way, the 5′ end of the mRNA is threaded into a new ribosome.

  • What is the protein binding site?
    • Hear this out loudPauseIn biochemistry and molecular biology, a binding site is a region on a macromolecule such as a protein that binds to another molecule with specificity. The binding partner of the macromolecule is often referred to as a ligand.

  • Where are the three main destinations of translated proteins?
    • Hear this out loudPauseThese destinations include lysosomes, the plasma membrane, and the cell exterior. Some proteins need to do their jobs in the Golgi (are "Golgi-resident), and a variety of molecular signals, including amino acid tags and structural features, are used to keep them there or bring them back ‍ .

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